Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice

Good for beginners,students,professionals,general public,contains management definitions,introduction,and process.includes organizational behavior,leadership,motivation,group dynamics,communication,stress management,interpersonal relations,personality development.HRM Planning,Recruitment,selection,job analysis,job enrichment,induction,performance management,training & development,training need analysis,industrial relations,health and safety,welfare and benefit,HR reports,conflict management

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Wednesday, September 30, 2009

Appointment from the waiting list

When a certain appointee rejects a job offer the organization will have to decide an alternative suitable candidate to be hired. It should be emphasized that the alternative job candidate should be the next most appropriate person according top the order of merit at the selection. The waiting list should be used in this regard. After deciding to appoint the next most appropriate job candidate the above mentioned first, second and third steps will again have to be carried out

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Follow-up action at hiring a person

Follow -up means an attempt to ensure whether the appointees accept the job offers. if the appointee is already doing a job that is better than the job offered rejects the job offer. So it is necessary to know whether the job offer is accepted or not. It is important to get this knowing in advance. reason is that to appoint another suitable person to the job vacancy without delay if a certain appointee rejects the job offer.

This rejection may happen at the selection step/ interviews too. Some applicants receive another opportunity for the higher demand organizations an at that times some are giving up the previous chance they had. At that times this rejections are happening mostly and some times applicants may not agree to the terms and conditions of the organization, salaries and other benefits that are mentioning at appointment letter. Then if the both parties couldn't solve that initial conflict, then rejections may happened due to the lack of negotiation skill.

If the appointee accepts the job offer, then he/she can appointed to the vacancy

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Appointment Letter

Decision of selection and appointment is to be notified to the successful applicants/Appointees by the relevant authorized manager/officer on behalf of the organization. Generally here the relevant letter of appointment will be issued and sent by registered post/E-mail.

some organizations are not practicing posting appointment letter. There are contacting employee and fixed a date to come for the job and sign for the attachment letter and contract of employment at the same time employee starting his/her works at the organization.

There are 3 types of appointment letter in the work industry. Only two of them are important in the field of HRM. All types of appointment letters are as follows.

An appointment letter of mostly using is written to inform a person that he or she has been selected for a particular position in an organization.

A letter of appointment or letter of administration assigns estate executors or successors. They are also known as Letters Testamentary, giving legal authority to engage in probate actions on behalf of the deceased and/or the family.

Apart form the above in business field, business mans and top management using a kind of appointment- that is Business Appointment Letter. A business appointment letter is written to schedule a meeting for business purposes. Sender should mention the purpose for the meeting or any other event in the letter. And ensure to describe your expectations from the meeting.


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Appointment Letter

Decision of selection and appointment is to be notified to the successful applicants/Appointees by the relevant authorized manager/officer on behalf of the organization. Generally here the relevant letter of appointment will be issued and sent by registered post/E-mail.

some organizations are not practicing posting appointment letter. There are contacting employee and fixed a date to come for the job and sign for the attachment letter and contract of employment at the same time employee starting his/her works at the organization.

There are 3 types of appointment letter in the work industry. Only two of them are important in the field of HRM. All types of appointment letters are as follows.

An appointment letter of mostly using is written to inform a person that he or she has been selected for a particular position in an organization.

A letter of appointment or letter of administration assigns estate executors or successors. They are also known as Letters Testamentary, giving legal authority to engage in probate actions on behalf of the deceased and/or the family.

Apart form the above in business field, business mans and top management using a kind of appointment- that is Business Appointment Letter. A business appointment letter is written to schedule a meeting for business purposes. Sender should mention the purpose for the meeting or any other event in the letter. And ensure to describe your expectations from the meeting.


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What is hiring?

Hiring is the process of appointing the candidate selected to the post/ job which is vacant. Appointment of a certain person to a particular post involves formally asking that person to work on the post or assigning him /her officially to do it. It involves placing the selected employees on the right positions of the jobs.

This step is a sub section of a selection as mentioned the process. At hiring a candidate is called as new employee. When the candidate has accept the job offer for the particular post, there after he/she is considered as an employee of the organization. Hiring is a not single task. It has a process of tasks and after the entire process, new comer is considering as new employee.

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Hiring a candidate as new employee to organization

The step next to the selection is hiring employee to the organization. Some are called this as absorption of an employee to the organization. The most important and legal part is begin in this step.

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Tuesday, September 29, 2009

Selection of PLC and Private companies in HRM Process

Selection is the most important step in Hiring an employee to the organization. That is because of a one bad selection may cause for the large amount of loss, and may be a bankrupting of an organization.

Selection is mean; choose the perfect employee, best alternative for the right place it is needed at the right time from a capable group of applicants. Usually companies will have large amount of applications at the application call for the vacancy. So it is must to have a selection step for choose the best applicant. Selection is should be a transparent method. But unfortunately some of private companies are not practicing these transparent methods while many of companies – Public Liable Companies (PLC) and government organizations following those methods.

At selection part, organizations could use different methods. Assume if a particular company has received 300 applications for one 7 vacancies in the same grade and post. So how can company select the proffered 7 applicants? For this type of situations, companies are using sorting methods. Ethically the company should call for all the applicants for interviews or for exams. But interviews and exams are costly. So at the beginning companies are sorting Applications on concern their qualifications, both educational and experience. After that the HRD of companies will be able to select at least 150 out of 300. Then conducting an exam for the rest of people will not be too hard. Most of times, companies are selecting around 15-25% of the total applicants, according to the situation they are facing.

After sorting the candidates from their applications, usually companies will have an examination part for the further sorting. These exams may include general knowledge, aptitude test, mathematics and language. General knowledge is usually using for measure the general awareness of the person. Aptitude testing is generally for measure the decision making and understanding ability of the candidate. Mathematics is using for measure the rational decision making and logics of the candidate. After this part, selected candidates will send to the part of interview. The way of interview and interviewers are depend on the company. Some companies are using service of around 12 interviewers while some are using only one interviewer at the interview. But most of times for the PLC are using around 3-5 interviewers at once. Some companies are conducting 2 to 5 interviews while some are using only one interview. The selecting part is complies with the company policies, and strategies usually.

For the government institutions, there should have a proper, transparent method to select the best candidates for the exam. Many of countries which are having free education are using examination methods at the selecting candidates for the jobs.

Any how the scope of the selection is to choose the best person fitting for the job available at the organization. It is good to have a large pool of candidates at the selection, and then the company will able to select the best person fitting with the job, among candidates.

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Process of Hiring, in detail - Preparation of appointment letter

The organization should prepare a letter of appointment that contains terms and conditions of employment and give it to every job candidate who has been selected for a certain post. Job tasks and duties, special terms and conditions, pay and other allowances and benefits etc should be included in the letter of appointment.

The terms and conditions are basically depends on the organization and the constitution of particular country. That is because of the constitution of the country is the fundamental law of the country. Some times this preparation of appointment letter may be different form one country to another and one state to another. Following this step in both permanent and part time jobs is good for the organization and employee, because this is showing the legal relationship between employee and employer. But usually or unfortunately this is not practicing for many of part time jobs. Many organizations which are offering more part time job opportunities are not prepare appointment letter, but it may mentioned in the company policies. And preparation of common code of ethics and rules and regulation for the part time workers is could be practice, and also those organizations could practice a data base of their part time workers. MS Excel or Access could be use for that process, and it will not be difficult thing for organizations, especially for HRD of particular organization. It could refer for all other departments of the organizations.

It is important to have separate appointment letter formats for permanent, temporary and casual employees as terms and conditions differ from the status of the employment.

In preparing the letter appointment there are two approaches.

  • Detailed one
  • One paged letter
A separate document that contains terms and conditions of employment is attached along with the letter of appointment. Under the second approach the length of the letter of appointment contains the following information.

  1. Wage/salary
  2. Incentives
  3. Duration of period of the above rewards and dates of payment
  4. Hours of works
  5. Holidays and leaves
  6. Overtime work
  7. Probationary period/Retirement/Termination
  8. Transferability

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Hiring Process

The usual process of hiring is as below.
1) Preparation of appointment letter
2) Notification to appointees
3) At rejection appointment from the waiting list
4) Entering in to the contract of employment.

This basic process may change some times regarding to the organizations policies and practices. The hidden process of this hiring process is communication. Before preparation of appointment letter, appointee should aware about the organization and its process and little introduction about his/her job description. Some organizations are expecting hire a person at the end of interview, but the ethical way is organizations should give a chance to the candidate to decide and select if he/she has take the correct decision in the interview and the applying step. The perfect coordination between organization and the appointee is must in this step. Negotiations and clarifications may need at this step, because this is the beginning of a contract between organization and new employee.

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Importance of Hiring a person for a job

Human resource planning focuses of knowing types and numbers of specific job vacancies. Carder plan is showing the work force need to the organization as mentioned above. After the planning when organizations decide to recruit new employees to the vacancies, the first step or recruitment is begin. Then as recruitment doing so, advertising vacancies on news papers, web sites and by using the functions using from organizations, are demanding for their workforce.

Recruitment focuses of seeking and receiving job applicants. After advertised the vacancies, usually organizations are receiving applications for the particular posts. As mention at the selecting process organizations have to select the best applicant suits for their vacancy. Selection focuses on choosing the right job applicants to fill the job vacancies. Until hiring is done there are no new employees placed on the jobs to perform relevant duties and responsibilities. It is essential to offer jobs to the relevant selected job candidates and invite them to the organization to commence the working. Otherwise there can not be consider, that there is having legal intention on the recruiting/ hiring a person for the organization. Offering and inviting occurs in hiring function.

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Recruitment Principles - Concept of Marriott’s Recruitment Principles for the modern world.

Marriott’s Recruitment Principles are most popular principle according to the recruitment in the modern world.

A new employee should hire friendly way and trains technically to have maximum performance of the employee. It is better to hire people with the spirit to serve and train them to work than hire people who know business and try to teach them to enjoy serving guests. A manager should hire a driver who loves to drive safely and who loves to keep the vehicle clean. This is teaching that this approach works both for delivering excellent service and fro retaining their employees.

The main concern is should be the total compensation. Money is needed to have, but it is not the top concern of a person. But intangible factors taken together, such as work life balance, leadership quality, opportunity for advancements, work environment, and training far outweigh money in their decisions to stay or leave. To organization, there should have less number of pay matters and more period of work with the organization. From flexible schedules to tailored benefit packages and development opportunities are built systems to address these non monetary factors.

Caring bottom line of the organization is to have for a developing organization. When employees come to work they should feel safe, secure and welcome at the work place. Committed associates are less likely to leave, and associate work commitment is one of the key drivers of guest satisfaction. Managers are accountable for associate satisfaction rating and for turn over rates. It is very good to have, associates meetings about 15 minutes in every day to discuss the matters faced on previous day or the current day and to discuss the goals that has to achieve. This kind approaches of managers is helps to earn loyalty for the organization from each and every employee.

Promote employees when ever it is possible to do. By promoting current employees the organization will gain the loyalty of employee. An employee is a customer for the organization, especially for the department of Human resource. Therefore employee should treat well at all the times, when it can do. Promoting employees will make the chance to them to learn something new, and there fore their life will not be a stereotyped. The smooth changes in life are making them refresh and it will helps to them to reduce their stress while serving to the organization with high efficiency. Also, an opportunity for have a promotion will make an opportunity for has training. All this advancements are caused to make the decision in employees – to stay with the organization.

Build the Employment Brand is helps to have good attraction from job seekers. This concept is considering the employee as a most valuable thing in the organization, and this is same as customer attraction practicing in marketing management. If we are considering HRD as a service provider (as it is) then the customers will be employees. Appreciating care and service for the internal customers will make a good mouth of word regarding organization. It will not limit to the internal environment. It will go to the external environment and then jobs seekers will waiting till the organization advertise its vacancy. Potential employees are looking for great work experience when they shop for jobs. Communicating the promise of a great work experience is what employment branding is all about. The basement of this concept is, organizations most valuable resource is Human Resource, Human Capital, drives economic value for the company.

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Monday, September 28, 2009

What is need to get attraction of job seeker

To attract a job seeker for an organization, there has to have a good demand for the organization. To have a good demand for the organization, organizations are following many of processes such as high salary scales, and good welfare and employee friendly methods. Tactics as above are use to have an attraction for the organization to have good demands always. It will discuss in coming areas.

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Employee Recruitment

Recruitment refers to the process of screening, and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm, or for a vacancy in a volunteer-based some components of the recruitment process, mid- and large-size organizations and companies often retain professional recruiters or outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies. External recruitment is the process of attracting and selecting employees from outside the organization.

The recruitment industry has four main types of agencies: employment agencies, recruitment websites and job search engines, "headhunters" for executive and professional recruitment, and in-house recruitment. The stages in recruitment include sourcing candidates by advertising or other methods, and screening and selecting potential candidates using tests or interviews.

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Attracting Human Resource for the Organization

This is also called as Recruitment by some times; but the Recruitment is defined as the process of attraction.
The attraction is linked with the HR planning always. Because if there has identified a need of work force for the organization, at the meantime, there should conduct an attraction method to attract the scarce workforce for the organization.

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Human Resource Planning

A HR manager of an organization is responsible for the carder plan for the organization mainly. Evaluate the needs of labor for the operating sections such as production, administration; sales etc is a sub task of a HR department. There are some of carder planning methods are available and it will be discussed in the coming posts.
So there will be an only introduction part here.

Human Resource Planning is defined as “The development of a comprehensive staffing strategy for meeting the organizations’ future human resource needs” (Gluick)

Also it has defined as “Work force planning places the right people at the right place at right time, with the right skills and education to need the organizations’ strategic plan and objectives” (Ghame & Benet)

As defined in above statements, the HR department should coordinate the labor demand and the supply of the organization. For that coordination they should follow some evaluation methods and processes, which are operating in monthly basis (usually) to make sure that the organization has the optimum work force for getting work done.

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Human Resource Management Process

There could sub functions in the HRM Process in practice.
The key areas of HRM Process are
1) Human resource planning
2) Attraction – also called as recruitment
3) Selection
4) Directing
5) Training and development
6) Performance appraisal
7) Promote, demote or transfer regarding to performances

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What is Personnel management and What is Human Resource Management

Some Differences between Personnel management and Human Resource Management

Personnel Management is
- Usually not practicing good relationships with other employees in the organization
- Operating as different function usually
- Basically operating by the instructions of Top Management, and usually can not see a care for employees
- Focus on the maintain of records and legislation.

Human Resource Management is
- Interpersonal and interpersonal relationships are practicing always
- Operating as consolidated function
- Considering both needs of Management and Employees/ workers
- Optimum solutions are giving for the problems coming up in the organization, going beyond of maintain records etc.

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Sunday, September 27, 2009

Human Resource Management is

We have defined the human resource and now its need to define the term human resource management. Management specialists have defined human resource management as below.

"The Process of analyzing and managing an organizations human resources needs to ensure satisfaction of its strategic objectives”
-Management –Hellriegel/Slocum

“The policies and practices involved in carrying out the ‘people’ or human resources aspects of a management position, including recruiting, screening, training and appraising.”
-Human resource management –Gray Dessler

We can mention a business approach for the definition of human resource management as follows.

"a model of personnel management that focuses on the individual rather than taking a collective approach. Responsibility for human resource management is often devolved to line management. It is characterized by an emphasis on strategic integration, employee commitment, workforce flexibility, and quality of goods and services."

Also, it has defined as "All methods and functions concerning the mobilization and development of personnel as human resources, with the objective of efficiency and greater productivity in a company, government administration, or other organization." too.

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What is Human Resource?

First we should understand "What is the Human Resource?" and the following definition by Prof. Maginson, will helps to understand what is the human resource.

"The total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an organization's work force as well as the values, attitudes and beliefs of the individual involved"

- Prof. Maginson

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Thursday, September 24, 2009

Definition of Resource

What is the resource?

Resource could be defined as any thing used in production- both good and services. Economists have identified 5 types of resources used in the production function.
Those are
1) Labor
2) Capital
3) Land/Natural resource
4) Entrepreneurship

Labor is defined as “The time human beings spend producing goods and services”

Capital could be defined as “Something produced that is long lasting and used to produce other goods”

Natural resource is the naturally occurring materials that come with it. Land is also a natural resource.

The ability and willingness to combine the other resources- labor, capital, and natural resources – in to productive enterprise is called as “Entrepreneurship”

Capital could be divided in to 2 basic categories; those are Physical Capital and Human Capital.

Physical Capital is the part of the capital stock consisting of physical goods, such as machinery, equipments, and factories.

Human Capital is the skills and training of the labor force.

So, according to this we can identify that organizations have two basic inputs.
1) Capital
2) Labor


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Wednesday, September 23, 2009

History of Human Resource Management

Organizations have many operational functions. HRD is one of the functions that is engaging with the tasks of an organization. In early 70 s there was no division called as Human Resource Department or Division. By that time there was only a division called "Personnel" engaged with the labor related in the organization.

Personnel Management was introduced by the end of 19th century. At that time, this was focused on the welfare of labors in the organizations. According to the tasks they have done, the officers at Personnel Department was called as "Welfare Officers". The special thing was, the employee welfare tasks were done by women at that time.

During the period of 1914-1939, many organizations has showed a quick growth and quick changes in needs and wants of the operations. Therefore the tasks done by women shifted to the men's, because of the complexity of tasks. These officers has called as "Labor managers" at that time.

After Second World War, during the period 1945 - 1979, this has grown up and changed to "Personnel Management", and Personnel Management was focus basically on employee administration and the legislation.

At late 70 s the economic of the world changed gradually and organizations started to consider labors work as an important resource. At the decade of 80 the concept of "Human Resource Management" was started and then it has shown growth gradually in decade of 1990. Finally the tasks and operations of personnel management was shifted to the Human Resource Management and it is functioning now in broad way in the organizations than Personnel Management.

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