Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice

Good for beginners,students,professionals,general public,contains management definitions,introduction,and process.includes organizational behavior,leadership,motivation,group dynamics,communication,stress management,interpersonal relations,personality development.HRM Planning,Recruitment,selection,job analysis,job enrichment,induction,performance management,training & development,training need analysis,industrial relations,health and safety,welfare and benefit,HR reports,conflict management

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Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Leadership Qualities

  1. Know yourself and seek self-improvement – In order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know, and do, attributes. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes- This can be accomplished through self study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others.
  2. Be technically proficient- As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees’ tasks.
  3. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions- search for ways to guide your organization to new heights, and when things go wrong, they always do sooner or later. Do not blame others; analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge.
  4. Make sound and timely decisions- Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools.
  5. Set the examples- Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see- Mahathma Gandhi
  6. Know your people and look out for their well being- Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers.
  7. Keep your workers informed- Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other people.
  8. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers- Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their personal responsibilities.
  9. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished- Communication is the key to this responsibility.
  10. Train as a team - Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not really teams…they are just a group of people doing their jobs.
  11. Use the full capabilities of your organization- By developing a team spirit; you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.

Read more...

Tuesday, October 27, 2009

Leadership Theory


Interest in leadership increased during the early part of the twentieth century. Early leadership theories focused on what qualities distinguished between leaders and followers, while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill level. While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of 8 major types.

  1. “Great Man” Theory: Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent- that great leaders are born not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic, and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term “Great man” was used because, at the time, leadership was through of primarily as a male quality, especially on terms of military leadership.
  2. Trait Theory: Similar in some ways to grate man theories, trait theory assumes that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. But if particular traits are key features of leadership, how to do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership.
  3. Contingency theory: Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation.
  4. Situational theory: Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variable. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision making.
  5. Behavioral Theory: Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belied that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders, not on mental qualities of internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.
  6. Participative Theory: Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others in to account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others.
  7. Management Theory: Management theories (also known as “Transactional theories”) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system, of reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are reward; when they fail, and they are reprimanded or punished.
  8. Relationship Theory: Relationship theories (also known as “Transformational theories”) focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. These leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. Transformational leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. Theses leaders often have high ethical and moral standards.

Read more...

What are the Leadership Styles

There are 3 types of leadership styles could see mainly, as traditional leadership styles. Those are,
  • Autocratic Leadership - traits of this leadership style are mainly, dictate orders & determine all policies without getting involvement of group members in decision making.
  • Democratic Leadership - traits of this leadership style are, setting policies through group discussions & decisions. also democratic leaders are encouraging & helping group members to interact, requesting cooperation of others & being considerate of members feelings and needs.
  • Laissez-faire Leadership - laissez-faire leaders are does not participate in their group's decision making at all.

(In 1939, a group of researches led by psychologist Kurt Lewin set out to identify different styles of leadership. While further research has identified more specific types of leadership, this early study was very influential and established three major leadership styles. In the study, groups of school children were assigned to one of three groups with an authoritarian, demographic, or laissez-fair leader/ the children were then led in all arts and crafts projects. Researches then observed the behavior of children in response to the different styles of leadership.)


But in present days, majority of these leadership styles are short coming. These different styles are effective under different situations and conditions. Mix of these leadership styles could see around the world most of the times . Unlimited numbers of leadership styles may be identified, and some of them are mentioned at below.

Two major leadership models are available to see in modern world. Those are - Hersay and Blanchard's Situational Model and Vroom-Jago Leadership Model.

Hersay and Blanchard's Situational Model is based on the amount of relationship and task behavior that a leader provides to subordinates in a situation. Performance of the task needed is stimulate task behavior or relationship behavior in return(Organizational Behavior, Hellriegel & Slocum,10e). Task behavior is the extent to which a leader tells to subordinates, what to do, when to do, where to do and how to do. Relationship behavior is the extent to which the leaders listens, provide support and help, and encourage their subordinates. Leadership styles under this model are,

    telling style - provides specific and clear instructions, directions and advices.
    selling style - this is provides both task and relationship leader behaviors; also encourage two way communication between leader and follower.
    participating style - leader is using two way communication and support to followers to use their competencies, and also gives the confidence to followers.
    delegating style - under delegating style subordinates are empowered to make decisions. delegating style provides little task or relationship behavior.

Vroom-Jago time driven leadership model is focuses on the leadership role in decision making situations. This leadership model recommend a leader choices among five leadership styles based on seven situational factors, come to know the time requirement and costs associate with each styles. The situational variable are - decision significance, importance of commitment, leader expertise, likelihood of commitment, team support, team expertise and team competence. The leadership styles under Vroom-Jago time driven leadership model are,
  • decide style - leader make the decision and announce or communicate it to team 
  • consult individually style - leader is presenting the problem to team members individually and getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing the team as a group.
  • consult team style - leader is presenting the problem to the team at the group meeting and getting their suggestions and ideas and leader make the decisions. The decisions may or may not depend on the subordinates suggestions.
  • facilitate style - leader is presenting & defining the problem and boundaries which decision must to be made to team in a meeting as facilitator. Role of leader is much as chairperson, coordinating and discussion, focusing on the problem. Leader should not adopt the team to leaders decision. Leader is willing to accept and implement any solution that has the support of the whole team.
  • delegate style - Leader is permitting to the team to make the decisions with in recommended limitations.

Read more...

Leadership theory


Interest in leadership increased during the early part of the twentieth century. Early leadership theories focused on what qualities distinguished between leaders and followers, while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill level. While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of 8 major types.

  1. “Great Man” Theory: Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent- that great leaders are born not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic, and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term “Great man” was used because, at the time, leadership was through of primarily as a male quality, especially on terms of military leadership.
  2. Trait Theory: Similar in some ways to grate man theories, trait theory assumes that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. But if particular traits are key features of leadership, how to do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership.
  3. Contingency theory: Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation.
  4. Situational theory: Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variable. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision making.
  5. Behavioral Theory: Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belied that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders, not on mental qualities of internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.
  6. Participative Theory: Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others in to account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others.
  7. Management Theory: Management theories (also known as “Transactional theories”) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system, of reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are reward; when they fail, and they are reprimanded or punished.
  8. Relationship Theory: Relationship theories (also known as “Transformational theories”) focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. These leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. Transformational leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. Theses leaders often have high ethical and moral standards.

Read more...

Participative leadership (Democratic)

Lewin’s study found that participative (democratic) leadership is generally the most effective leadership style. Democratic leaders offer guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group and allow input from other group members. In Lewins’ study, children in this group were less productive then the members of the authoritarian group, but their contributions were of a much higher quality.

Participative leaders encourage group embers to participate, but retain the final say over the decision-making process. Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative.

Read more...

Authoritarian leadership (Autocratic)

Authoritarian leaders provide clear expectations for what needs to ne done, when it should be done, and how it should be done.

There is also a clear division between the leader and the followers. Authoritarian leaders make decisions independently with little or no input from the rest of the group.

Researchers found that decision-making was less creative under authoritarian leadership. Lewin also found that it is more difficult to move from an authoritarian style to a democratic style than vice versa. Abuse of this style is usually viewed as controlling, bossy, and dictatorial.

Authoritarian leadership is best applied to situations where there is little time for group decision-making or where the leaders is the most knowledgeable member of the group.

Read more...

What are the Leadership Styles

There are 3 types of leadership styles could see mainly, as traditional leadership styles. Those are,
  1. Autocratic Leadership - traits of this leadership style are mainly, dictate orders & determine all policies without getting involvement of group members in decision making.
  2. Democratic Leadership - traits of this leadership style are, setting policies through group discussions & decisions. also democratic leaders are encouraging & helping group members to interact, requesting cooperation of others & being considerate of members feelings and needs.
  3. Laissez-faire Leadership - laissez-faire leaders are does not participate in their group's decision making at all.

(In 1939, a group of researches led by psychologist Kurt Lewin set out to identify different styles of leadership. While further research has identified more specific types of leadership, this early study was very influential and established three major leadership styles. In the study, groups of school children were assigned to one of three groups with an authoritarian, demographic, or laissez-fair leader/ the children were then led in all arts and crafts projects. Researches then observed the behavior of children in response to the different styles of leadership.)
 
But in present days, majority of these leadership styles are short coming. These different styles are effective under different situations and conditions. Mix of these leadership styles could see around the world most of the times . Unlimited numbers of leadership styles may be identified, and some of them are mentioned at below.

Two major leadership models are available to see in modern world. Those are - Hersay and Blanchard's Situational Model and Vroom-Jago Leadership Model.

Hersay and Blanchard's Situational Model is based on the amount of relationship and task behavior that a leader provides to subordinates in a situation. Performance of the task needed is stimulate task behavior or relationship behavior in return(Organizational Behavior, Hellriegel & Slocum,10e). Task behavior is the extent to which a leader tells to subordinates, what to do, when to do, where to do and how to do. Relationship behavior is the extent to which the leaders listens, provide support and help, and encourage their subordinates. Leadership styles under this model are,
  • telling style - provides specific and clear instructions, directions and advices.
  • selling style - this is provides both task and relationship leader behaviors; also encourage two way communication between leader and follower.
  • participating style - leader is using two way communication and support to followers to use their competencies, and also gives the confidence to followers. 
  • delegating style - under delegating style subordinates are empowered to make decisions. delegating style provides little task or relationship behavior. 
Vroom-Jago time driven leadership model is focuses on the leadership role in decision making situations. This leadership model recommend a leader choices among five leadership styles based on seven situational factors, come to know the time requirement and costs associate with each styles. The situational variable are - decision significance, importance of commitment, leader expertise, likelihood of commitment, team support, team expertise and team competence. The leadership styles under Vroom-Jago time driven leadership model are,
  • decide style - leader make the decision and announce or communicate it to team  
  • consult individually style - leader is presenting the problem to team members individually and getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing the team as a group.
  • consult team style - leader is presenting the problem to the team at the group meeting and getting their suggestions and ideas and leader make the decisions. The decisions may or may not depend on the subordinates suggestions. 
  • facilitate style - leader is presenting & defining the problem and boundaries which decision must to be made to team in a meeting as facilitator. Role of leader is much as chairperson, coordinating and discussion, focusing on the problem. Leader should not adopt the team to leaders decision. Leader is willing to accept and implement any solution that has the support of the whole team.
  • delegate style - Leader is permitting to the team to make the decisions with in recommended limitations.

Read more...

LEADERSHIP MODELS

Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. The ideal is not to lock your self in to a type of behavior discussed in the model, but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken..

Three general approaches have been used to understand leadership.

From the 1900s to the 1940s, most leadership studies focused a trait approach aimed at identifying individual characteristics, such as demographic factors or personality traits, those distinguished leaders from followers. Although some traits are central to leadership traits alone cannot fully predict effectiveness.

Because trait based research failed to explain why some leaders are more effective than others, researchers focused on what leadership do rather than on whom leaders are. The behavioral approach considers two sets of behaviors that leaders use to be effective; those that relate to the task and those that relates to taking care of people. Task behaviors –initiation of structure—are concerned with defining and organizing the task to help followers achieve the goals. Relationship behaviors –considerations—include behaviors aimed at creating mutual trust and respects with followers.

Since the 1960s, the following assumptions have guided leadership research and practice: what makes a leader effective depends on the situation. Before we discussed the contingency approach to management on detail, we must recall that most leadership theories have been developed and tested in Western countries. Since culture influences perceptions and expectations of effective leadership and how leaders are chosen, leadership theories do not always apply to other cultures.

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BASICS OF LEADERSHIP

Leadership always involves interpersonal interaction. Since there are no leaders without followers, leadership is a group phenomenon. Leaders use influence or persuasion to guide groups through a certain course of action or toward the achievement of certain goals. Leadership, then, involves goal directed behavior. Finally, the presence of a leader involves some form if hierarchy. The leaders are at the top of the hierarchy, even if it is very flat.

By combining the four themes of group phenomenon, goal orientation, influence, and hierarchy, we can define a leader in the following way: as a person who influences individuals and groups in an organization, helps them establish goals, guide them toward achievement of those goals, and allows them to be effective as a result.

The two requirements of leadership are competence and some degree of conformity to the group or organization. Competence is the ability and expertise to perform one or more tasks well. Conformity is the acceptance of group norms.

Read more...

Leadership Qualities - (the principles of leadership)

  1. Know yourself and seek self-improvement – In order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know, and do, attributes. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes- This can be accomplished through self study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others.
  2. Be technically proficient- As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees’ tasks.
  3. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions- search for ways to guide your organization to new heights, and when things go wrong, they always do sooner or later. Do not blame others; analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge.
  4. Make sound and timely decisions- Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools.
  5. Set the examples- Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see- Mahathma Gandhi
  6. Know your people and look out for their well being- Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers.
  7. Keep your workers informed- Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other people.
  8. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers- Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their personal responsibilities.
  9. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished- Communication is the key to this responsibility.
  10. Train as a team - Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not really teams…they are just a group of people doing their jobs.
  11. Use the full capabilities of your organization- By developing a team spirit; you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.

Read more...

THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT KEYS TO EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP

A Hay’s study over 75 key components of employee satisfaction. They found that,

  • Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction
  • Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence:
  1. Helping employees understand the company’s overall business strategy.
  2. Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives
  3. Sharing information with employee on both how the company is doing and how an employee’s own division is doing-relative to strategic business objectives.

Read more...

What is Leadership

Leadership is the process through which leaders exert such influence on other group of members. Also leadership can call as a process which develop ideas and a vision, and drive to the vision through mission living by values that support to the vision and core ideas, influence others to admit them in their own behaviors (to drive to the vision) and making hard decisions in resources.

Noel Tichy has studied many outstanding business leaders, and described leadership as;
"Leadership is accomplishing something through other people that wouldn't have happened if your weren't there. and in today's world, that's ;less and ;less through command and control, and more and more through changing people's mindsets and hence altering the way they behave. Today, leadership is being able to mobilize ideas and values that energize other people"(Organizational Behavior - Hellriegel & Slocum - 10th ed.)

A traditional definition of leadership; Leadership is an interpersonal influence directed toward the achievement of a goal or goals.

The Leadership
Three important parts of these definitions are the terms interpersonal, influence and goal. Interpersonal means between persons. Thus, a leader has more than one person (group) to lead. Influence is the power to affect others. Goal is the end one strives to attain.

Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such a beliefs, values, ethics, characters, knowledge, and skills. Although your position as a manager, gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader. It simply makes you the boss. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals, rather than simply bossing people around.

As a process, leadership is the use of non-coercive influence to direct and co-ordinate the activities of group members toward goal accomplishment. As a property, leadership is the set of characteristics attributed to those who are perceived to employ such influence successfully.

Leadership and Leader are two keywords combined always, because leader exists where ever leadership established and vise verse.

Leader is the person who exhibits the key attributes of leadership (ideas,vision, values, ethics, knowledge) and  influencing others and making hard and tough decisions to be more effective in working to achieve their mutual goals and maintain effective relationships among the parties (members) who involving to drive to the vision.

There are several leadership theories, leadership models and leadership styles could see in the world. Remember...leadership is always associate with power, influence and fellowship. Without follower leadership does not exists. (even in the self leadership- self following is exists.) Many of leadership qualities could see with in leadership models and styles, and principles of leadership are describing them.

Read more...

WHY DO WE STUDY LEADERSHIP

Good leaders are made not born. If you have desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience. This guide will help you through that process.

To inspire your works into higher levels of team works, there are certain things you must know, and do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their laurels.

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LEDERSHIP AND ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS

An organization has the greatest chance of being successful when all the employees work toward achieving its goals. Since leadership involves the exercise of influence by one person over others, the quality of leadership exhibited by supervisors is a critical determinant of organizational success. Thus, Managers study leadership in order to influence the actions of subordinates towards the achievement of the goals of the organization.

Read more...

Monday, October 26, 2009

What is Leadership

Leadership is the process through which leaders exert such influence on other group of members. Also leadership can call as a process which develop ideas and a vision, and drive to the vision through mission living by values that support to the vision and core ideas, influence others to admit them in their own behaviors (to drive to the vision) and making hard decisions in resources.

Noel Tichy has studied many outstanding business leaders, and described leadership as;
"Leadership is accomplishing something through other people that wouldn't have happened if your weren't there. and in today's world, that's ;less and ;less through command and control, and more and more through changing people's mindsets and hence altering the way they behave. Today, leadership is being able to mobilize ideas and values that energize other people"(Organizational Behavior - Hellriegel & Slocum - 10th ed.)

A traditional definition of leadership; Leadership is an interpersonal influence directed toward the achievement of a goal or goals.

The Leadership
Three important parts of these definitions are the terms interpersonal, influence and goal. Interpersonal means between persons. Thus, a leader has more than one person (group) to lead. Influence is the power to affect others. Goal is the end one strives to attain.

Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such a beliefs, values, ethics, characters, knowledge, and skills. Although your position as a manager, gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader. It simply makes you the boss. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals, rather than simply bossing people around.

As a process, leadership is the use of non-coercive influence to direct and co-ordinate the activities of group members toward goal accomplishment. As a property, leadership is the set of characteristics attributed to those who are perceived to employ such influence successfully.

Leadership and Leader are two keywords combined always, because leader exists where ever leadership established and vise verse.

Leader is the person who exhibits the key attributes of leadership (ideas,vision, values, ethics, knowledge) and  influencing others and making hard and tough decisions to be more effective in working to achieve their mutual goals and maintain effective relationships among the parties (members) who involving to drive to the vision.

There are several leadership theories, leadership models and leadership styles could see in the world. Remember...leadership is always associate with power, influence and fellowship. Without follower leadership does not exists. (even in the self leadership- self following is exists.) Many of leadership qualities could see with in leadership models and styles, and principles of leadership are describing them.

Read more...

Thursday, October 15, 2009

Induction Programs Preparation

Under induction preparation this stage specific and clear answers need to be obtained for several questions.

a) About what information a basic understanding should be given?

This first question is a must thing for planning induction program. Preparation to induction program is same as planning the induction program. While organization has decided to give induction program, they are starting the planning program. This analysis is the key area to give general knowledge about the organization to the new employee. There may have several answers for the above question, but all the answers of yours may not useful at the beginning, and for the induction program. Don’t forget, the induction program is crating the image of the organization in the new employees mind. That clear image will be effective one till employee leaves the organization. Answer for this question should be short and sweet. Otherwise the new employee who is facing to this will be boring and wasting time and money. So the best answer should be given for this question is “General information”.


b) Which extend you should give?

Under this question the planner or presenter of induction program should have an idea about boundaries of information to be given for new employee. Over information and less information is make confusion in the new employee and it may become a reason for early leaving the company just after joining. If the induction program is conducting to a group of freshers and the group of new employees are appointing to different departments it is good to let them have on the job induction training in separately, after the main induction sessions.


c) Who should be the resource persons?
 
Selecting resource persons are very critical to the induction program. Because presentation of the resource person is making first impression of working conditions in the company to new employee. Maintaining gaps between resource person and new employees and getting more close to the new employees also not so professional and it would make difficulties. New employee may expect a friendly approach, and resource person should be able to give it but getting too much close may embarrassing them. Understanding these boundaries and frames are more important. If top management could spend some time to introduce them self to new employees at induction program may open new gateway and it could make a very good impression to the new employee about the company.

d) What should be the time frame and program agenda?
Program agenda is also an important parameter should pay more attention. Importance of punctuality and commitment should be delivered to the new employee and, person who run the program should understand the situations of new employees. They may not so much familiar with the company framework and may much more familiar about it as past experiences in previous work place. Program conductor should go through the experiences of participants before starting the program, by their applications and develop the agenda. Also conductor should aware about the aim of the program too. It will minimize many of problems and difficulties at the induction. 

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PROCESS OF INDUCTION

The process of induction can categorize in to 3 major steps, accordingly the sub tasks.
Those categories are
1) Preparation
2) Conduct
3) Evaluation

These major tasks could be seeing in the induction programme.

Read more...

Monday, October 12, 2009

OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING

Objectives of training methods can be determined generally as below.

a) Increase job satisfaction and morals among employees

b) Increase employee motivation

c) Increase efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain

d) Increase capacity to adopt new technologies and methods

e) Increase innovation in strategies and products

f) Reduce employee turnover

g) Enhance company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!)

h) Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training

Objectives of orientations are different from other methods, because it is given for the new employees of the organization at the beginning of their career at organization. Orientation training should emphasize the following topics:

(i) The company's history and mission.

(i) The key members in the organization.

(ii) The key members in the department, and how the department helps fulfill the mission of the company.

(iii) Personnel rules and regulations.

Objectives of the telling methods give an idea about the training area. Some times written parts also can be seen in this method, but generally this method gives an understanding about the learning area.

Showing methods create a picture in trainees mind and it helps to bring the trainee to real situations and that helps to practice decision making and general understanding in wide area, than telling method. This method also helps to increase the creativity of the trainee.

Role playing generate leaders and decision makers. Such kind of things help the trainee to get a deep understanding about the learning and working area. These kind of trainings can be used for junior management levels and finally can make a competence, skillful employees. Job rotation reduces the individual stress while training employees as generalists. By this training method, employer or management can assign the trained employee to fill an internal vacancy, with out giving training again. This will help the smooth flow of work at the organization. These kinds of trainings are better to face absenteeism of an employee in any manner.

Technical training is unique for a job. Most of technicians are specialized for their fields. So these technical trainings reduce wastage and accidents while maximizing the profit of a firm or the line. These kinds of trainings create efficiency in the organizational production.



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TRAINING METHODS TYPES - THE DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE- (Orientations, Internships and assistantships, Programmed , Laboratory , and Technical trainings

The discussion technique involves the participation of the trainee in actual work. Trainee is allowed to ask any related questions. Some times cases are also used for actual situations. These methods generate discussions between the trainee and the trainer. This can be used in several types of organizations relate to their works.

Some methods can not be determined as a part of above mentioned training types, because they have some specific characters or a combination of above types. Those various specific training methods are discussed below.

a) Orientations - Orientations are for new employees. The first several days on the job are crucial in the success of new employees. This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days.

Some companies use verbal presentations while others have written presentations. Many small businesses convey these topics in one-on-one orientations. No matter what method is used, it is important that the newcomer understand his or her new place of employment.

b) Internships and assistantships – These are usually a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. They are often used to train prospective managers or marketing personnel.

c) Programmed learning - Programmed learning, computer-aided instruction and interactive video all have one thing in common: they allow the trainee to learn at his or her own pace. Also, they allow material already learned to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having difficulty. After the introductory period, the instructor need not be present, and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows. These methods sound good, but may be beyond the resources of some small businesses.

d) Laboratory training – This is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. It usually is conducted at a neutral site and is used by upper- and middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with management and peers. It can be costly and usually is offered by larger small businesses. Most of research and development institutes are used this method and this will be the most effective training type to such kind of institutes.

e) Technical training – There are numerous fields in which technical training are offered which covers the jobs such as that of draughtsman, machinist, toolmaker, designers, mechanics, electrician, technical officers and technical assistants etc. For training in crafts, trades and in technical areas, apprenticeship training is the oldest and the most commonly used method. Apprenticeships develop employees who can do many different tasks. They usually involve several related groups of skills that allow the apprentice to practice a particular trade, and they take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice works for, and with, the senior skilled worker. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiring production skills.

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TRAINING METHODS TYPES - THE ROLE PLAYING METHOD

Role playing and simulation are training techniques that attempt to bring realistic decision making situations to the trainee. Likely problems and alternative solutions are presented for discussion. The adage there is no better trainer than experience is exemplified with this type of training. Experienced employees can describe real world experiences, and can help in and learn from developing the solutions to these simulations. This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training. Some times role playing activities can be categorized under the discussion methods too.

Job rotation also can be mentioned as a role playing method. Job rotation involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so he or she can get a good exposure to the tasks that are associated with different jobs. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. The employee learns a little about everything. This is a good strategy for small businesses because of the many jobs an employee may be asked to do, and this strategy is used to manage individual stress at organizations.

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TRAINING METHODS TYPES - THE SHOWING METHOD

In showing method audiovisual methods such as television, videotapes and films are used. This is the most effective means of providing real world conditions and situations in a short time. One advantage is that the presentation is the same no matter how many times it's played. This is not true with lectures, which can change as the speaker is changed or can be influenced by outside constraints. The major flaw with the audiovisual method is that it does not allow for questions and interactions with the speaker, nor does it allow for changes in the presentation for different audiences.

Some times presentations can be considered, according to showing method; but the presentations are combination of verbal and displaying or showing methods

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TRAINING METHODS- On-the-job training, Off-the-job training

Trainings in an organization can be divided to two broad types. They are on-the-job trainings and off-the-job trainings. These on-the-job trainings are given to the employees while they are conducting their regular works at the same places. In this way they do not lose time while they are training or learning. After a plan is developed for what should be taught, employees should be informed about the details. A time table should be establish with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. On-the-job training techniques include orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships, internships, assistantships, job rotation and coaching.

Off-the-job techniques include lectures, special study, audio visual conferences or discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instructions, and laboratory trainings. Most of these techniques are too costly.
Methods of trainings can be basically divided to four types, namely,
a. the telling method
b. the showing method
c. the role playing method
d. the discussion technique

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OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES

One major objective of the training is problem solving in ongoing processes. Training can solve a variety of manpower problems including operational problems involving manpower component. If not solved, these problems may lead to the reduction of optimum productivity. These problems can emerge within any group, such as except non-except, line and staff, unskilled, skilled, lower, middle and upper management. These problems are according to natures and all are having a common denominator, the solution required individual to their appreciative backgrounds specific identifiable items of additional knowledge skill or understanding. Organization wide, these problems includes needs to

a) Increase productivity

b) Improve the quality of work, work life and raise morals

c) Develop new skills, knowledge, attitudes and understanding

d) Correct use of new tools, machines, processes, methods or modifications thereof

e) Reduce wastage, accidents, turnover, lateness, absenteeism, and other overhead costs.

f) Implement new or changed policies or regulations

g) Fight obsolescence in skills, technologies, methods, products, markets, capital management etc.

h) Bring incumbents to that level of performance which meets the standard of performance for the job.

i) Develop replacements, prepare people for advancement, improve manpower deployment and ensure continuity of leadership.

j) Ensure the survival and growth of the organization.

k) Optimum utilization of human resources at the organization can be considered as an objective of training programs. The training and development programs further help the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.

l) Training and development is inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn with in the employees.

m) Training programs can be used to building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinators, and peers.

n) Health and safety is a major factor at the organization. Training programs in the sense of health and safety helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence; and it will helps to create healthy work environment through changing attitudes of the both employees and employers.

o) Finally the training programs are objected to develop human resources at the organization in technically and behaviorally in an organization. It also helps to development of an organization through more effective works, decision making and problem solving too. Training programs reduces the stress of management and employer; because when employees receive good training, they are able to solve their problems and make effective decisions, even under limited resources.

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TRAINING METHODS TYPES - THE TELLING METHOD

In the telling method, lectures are delivered similar to class room sessions. Lectures are used in this type of methods. Lectures present training material verbally and are used when the goal is to present a great deal of material to many people. It is more cost effective to lecture to a group than to train people individually. Lecturing is one-way communication and as such may not be the most effective way to train. Also, it is hard to ensure that the entire audience understands a topic on the same level; by targeting the average attendee you may undertrain some and lose others. Despite these drawbacks, lecturing is the most cost-effective way of reaching large audiences

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ACHIEVING TRAINING OBJECTIVES

Training objective should be specific for the particular segment of the even or an organization. As mention above, the training objectives may different from the one organization to another; but the objective should be specific for that organization and or specific to part of that organization. i.e. Implement ISO 9000:2001 quality system for Research and Development Division. The above objective is specific, and the employees should be trained for achieve that objective. Even the above objective can be different from a Testing services division. R & D is trial and error method or product development basis and testing services is based on evaluation methods or quality assurance of developed product basis. It definitely may different from marketing and sales division of an organization.

Another important thing of the establishing training objectives is it should be measurable. From a specific method or a process or generally, the objective can be measured. If the objectives can not be measure, the evaluation of the training is difficult. Therefore a good training objective is should be measurable. If the training can not be measure then it will go in to wide area rather than expected, and the trainees may confused because of that. The confusion of a trainee in a training programme may be a reason of lack of participation of the next training programme; and also if the training did not develop the trainee, that will be waste the time of both trainee and trainer. Even that will not make confusion in trainee, but also it happens in the trainer. So the training objectives should be established in measurable way by any one.

The training objective should be achievable by trainees. If the training objectives can not be achievable by trainees, it is also an error of setting training objectives. The training programmes should be motivating employees of an organization; not makes frustration in them. For motivate people and training them in correct way, there should the objectives are achievable. i.e. Implementing ISO 9000:2001 quality system among R & D Division that should be achievable. If the R & D Divisions can not implement the quality system any how, that objective is not achievable for R & D institutes rather than production oriented organization. When setting non achievable training objectives, trainees are may feel that training will not effect for them; and it may only time consuming thing. In organizational level time consuming for non profitable thing is not good. It may reason for profit losses and destroy skillful employees’ skills too. Competence employees may not like to spend their valuable time for non achievable things and it may make stress in their minds too. Then the absenteeism, accidents, and less concerning to work may increase in the organization. So there must to set achievable training objectives when the training is allocating for employees.

The training programme should relevant to an organization or to the employee. Sometimes employees may receive some of training programmes which are not directly relevant to their current fields; but it may have a good opportunity to adapt to new potential field to the employee. Also, some kind of general trainings has involved making employees as “Generalists” not specify to a particular field. That is suitable for most of firms, organizations; but such as medicine, surgeons, and research officers, that is not relative mostly. Those specific job titles have to have a specialization and special abilities. The generalist concept is most suitable to most of organizations because then the employer can rotate employees among the organization in to several types of job responsibilities. To reduce individual stress in an organization, the job rotation is a suitable process. To rotate jobs, employees must have general knowledge and abilities to do assigned tasks well. Training and development programmes can bring the employees up to that standard. In the case of specialized job titles, there have to be a direct relationship between training and the job responsibilities. i.e. to a research officer who is specialized in inorganic chemistry , training related to handicraft or carpentry will not be useful for his research field. That training is useful for a carpenter. When considering nano technology, there is no direct relationship between nano technology and inorganic chemistry, but there is a good potential to apply nano technology in inorganic chemistry such as making free radical coatings with certain materials giving them special properties. Nano technology is related not only to inorganic specialists, but also it’s related to the specialists in organic chemistry. For example nano technology is used in organic chemistry to produce high efficiency hydrocarbons by converting hydrocarbons to nano particles ultimately making high efficiency fuel source. Also, Nano technology is not related to administrative work. Administrative works should have trainings such as PR handling etc. So the relatedness of the training program for employee is an important thing when setting training objectives. The employer or trainer must concentrate on these functions when he or she establishes training objectives to the training programmes.

In both on-the-job and off-the-job training methods, training objectives should be time bound, because the trainee takes time to develop skills in him. When considering off-the-job type trainings, during the training period, the organization may not have a maximum contribution for the production function. Evan in on-the-job type training, there is low contribution from the employee to organization during the training periods. Therefore to minimize this additional time consumption, the trainings should be time bounded. For an employee to achieve a given objective within a given period of time there can be gat efficient automatically. Training programmes and training objectives should be oriented in efficiently. For that purpose, there should be a specific time period to end up the training and develop the trainee.

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