Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice

Good for beginners,students,professionals,general public,contains management definitions,introduction,and process.includes organizational behavior,leadership,motivation,group dynamics,communication,stress management,interpersonal relations,personality development.HRM Planning,Recruitment,selection,job analysis,job enrichment,induction,performance management,training & development,training need analysis,industrial relations,health and safety,welfare and benefit,HR reports,conflict management

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Tuesday, October 27, 2009

What are the Leadership Styles

There are 3 types of leadership styles could see mainly, as traditional leadership styles. Those are,
  • Autocratic Leadership - traits of this leadership style are mainly, dictate orders & determine all policies without getting involvement of group members in decision making.
  • Democratic Leadership - traits of this leadership style are, setting policies through group discussions & decisions. also democratic leaders are encouraging & helping group members to interact, requesting cooperation of others & being considerate of members feelings and needs.
  • Laissez-faire Leadership - laissez-faire leaders are does not participate in their group's decision making at all.

(In 1939, a group of researches led by psychologist Kurt Lewin set out to identify different styles of leadership. While further research has identified more specific types of leadership, this early study was very influential and established three major leadership styles. In the study, groups of school children were assigned to one of three groups with an authoritarian, demographic, or laissez-fair leader/ the children were then led in all arts and crafts projects. Researches then observed the behavior of children in response to the different styles of leadership.)

But in present days, majority of these leadership styles are short coming. These different styles are effective under different situations and conditions. Mix of these leadership styles could see around the world most of the times . Unlimited numbers of leadership styles may be identified, and some of them are mentioned at below.

Two major leadership models are available to see in modern world. Those are - Hersay and Blanchard's Situational Model and Vroom-Jago Leadership Model.

Hersay and Blanchard's Situational Model is based on the amount of relationship and task behavior that a leader provides to subordinates in a situation. Performance of the task needed is stimulate task behavior or relationship behavior in return(Organizational Behavior, Hellriegel & Slocum,10e). Task behavior is the extent to which a leader tells to subordinates, what to do, when to do, where to do and how to do. Relationship behavior is the extent to which the leaders listens, provide support and help, and encourage their subordinates. Leadership styles under this model are,

    telling style - provides specific and clear instructions, directions and advices.
    selling style - this is provides both task and relationship leader behaviors; also encourage two way communication between leader and follower.
    participating style - leader is using two way communication and support to followers to use their competencies, and also gives the confidence to followers.
    delegating style - under delegating style subordinates are empowered to make decisions. delegating style provides little task or relationship behavior.

Vroom-Jago time driven leadership model is focuses on the leadership role in decision making situations. This leadership model recommend a leader choices among five leadership styles based on seven situational factors, come to know the time requirement and costs associate with each styles. The situational variable are - decision significance, importance of commitment, leader expertise, likelihood of commitment, team support, team expertise and team competence. The leadership styles under Vroom-Jago time driven leadership model are,
  • decide style - leader make the decision and announce or communicate it to team 
  • consult individually style - leader is presenting the problem to team members individually and getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing the team as a group.
  • consult team style - leader is presenting the problem to the team at the group meeting and getting their suggestions and ideas and leader make the decisions. The decisions may or may not depend on the subordinates suggestions.
  • facilitate style - leader is presenting & defining the problem and boundaries which decision must to be made to team in a meeting as facilitator. Role of leader is much as chairperson, coordinating and discussion, focusing on the problem. Leader should not adopt the team to leaders decision. Leader is willing to accept and implement any solution that has the support of the whole team.
  • delegate style - Leader is permitting to the team to make the decisions with in recommended limitations.

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